By Zach Cameron
Scientific name: Larus glaucescens
Length: 19.7-23.2 in (50-59 cm) from head to tail
Wingspan: 47.2-56.3 in (120-143)
Weight: 31.7-42.3 oz (900-1200g)
The Glaucous-winged Gull is a sizable bird of the Laridae (gull) family, growing to around half a meter in length with a meter and a half wingspan. It can be identified by its web-footed pink legs and a red circle on its large yellow beak as well as its distinctively grey wings and back feathers. The gull has a white tail and chest. The undersides of its wings are also white and it has hints of grey throughout. Males can be distinguished from females by their larger size. Younger gulls are a more grey-brown all over with a black beak and a dark ring around their eyes. With breeding plumage, the feathers around the gull’s head are completely white and a pink circle is directly around both of their eyes. The Glaucous-winged Gull’s non-breeding plumage differs only by the fact that the head feathers are speckled in a grey to brown colouring and lack the ring around the eye. Interbreeding between gull species can make it a challenge to identify them but they can be quickly distinguished by their solely grey and white plumage.
Being a coastal sea bird, the Glaucous-winged Gull is usually found close to salt water and a food source. It can be found as far north as the Bering Sea, down to the Pacific coast going through Alaska, British Columbia and into northwestern Washington. During the winter they are commonly found in Asia going down to Japan. They often habitat beaches and rocky shorelines but also go up rivers in search of spawning salmon. These birds have integrated themselves well into man made environments, living around cities, harbours, garbage dumps and following fishing boats out into open waters. They have become especially successful because of garbage dumps; due to the dumps being such a great food source, there has been large increase in the gull population.
Glaucous-winged Gulls are omnivores that will eat just about anything. They are both scavengers and predators that can be found eating garbage and carrion (decaying flesh), stealing from other sea birds such as cormorants and pelicans, and feeding on salmon in the interior and marine animals in the open ocean. These gulls have a very wide diet that includes garbage, fish, seaweeds, mollusks, barnacles, other birds, small mammals, sea urchins and other invertebrates, crustaceans and so on. Being a bird, it uses its flight and speed to capture its prey as well as its large beak as an offensive tool. The birds will also use rocks to break open the harder, protected prey, by dropping the prey from a high height onto the rocks.
Adult Glaucous-winged Gulls do not have much in terms of predators. Bald eagles are known to eat the gulls throughout their lifetime as well as skuas, crows, and ravens who will steal gull eggs. The Glaucous-winged gull itself is a large predator of the species which often resorts to cannibalism of the younger and smaller chicks and eggs.
Glaucous-winged Gulls usually live to around 10 years old but have been known to live almost three times as long. They reach breeding age and adult plumage at 4 years old and will go to the same place and keep the same mate for most or all of their lives. They usually nest between April and August and lay 1 to 5 eggs. Their nests are made up of whatever they can gather in the area, using anything from seaweeds, plants, driftwood and even garbage. They nest on top of buildings, on beaches, in trees, islands, and cliff faces. Chicks will hatch around 27 days after the eggs are first laid and can usually fly at 44 days old. Glaucous-winged Gulls regularly breed with other species of gull (such as the Herring and California Gulls) when their territories cross.
Illustration by Zach Cameron, Photograph by Lydia Young
The Black Oystercatcher By Leah Brett Common name: Black Oystercatcher Scientific name: Haematopus bachmani Size range: 35cm to 43 cm
The Black Oystercatcher
By Leah Brett
Common name: Black Oystercatcher
Scientific name: Haematopus bachmani
Size range: 35cm to 43 cm
The Black Oystercatcher is an all black shorebird. What stands out in this bird is the bright red long bill and the yellow ring around the eye. The size of these birds resembles a common crow except for the bare short pinkish yellow legs.
Black Oystercatchers can be found along the rocky shoreline of the Pacific coast as far south as California and north to Alaska. Though they can be seen as individuals, they are often found in small groups poking their beaks among the rocks and seaweed looking for small prey with other shorebirds such as Gulls and Sandpipers.
The main diet of Oystercatchers includes mussels and limpets. These shellfish seem to be in abundance on the West Coast though other kinds of easy prey such as small crabs, barnacles or sea worms in tidal pools or among seaweed is common as well. They use their beak for stabbing the abductor muscle that holds the shell open and pull out the soft tissue with the tip of its sharp bill.
Because of their small size Black Oystercatchers are easy prey to Eagles, Gulls, Minks, Otters, Ravens, Weasels, Wolverines and Bears. The only defence they have is when they are alarmed, they take flight with a loud piercing whistle.
Black Oystercatchers live approximately 15 years. They nest on non-forested islands with shelled or gravel beaches usually the same place every year. The nest is made out of a few shells or rock fragments in a small depression just above the high tide line. The female lays 2 to 3 eggs at a time once a year in spring. Incubation is 24 to 29 days. The chicks are downy with “salt and pepper” specks for the first 4 weeks until the adult feathers grow in.
Photos by D. Young
Author: Coen del Valle
Common Name: Canada Goose
Scientific Name: Branta canadensis
Size Range: 76-110cm
The Canada Goose is a large waterfowl most recognizable for its long, black neck and white cheeks and chinstrap. Due to its dependence on water, it has webbed feet to aid its swimming. It’s head and neck are primarily black, they have a tan breast and a brown back. They also have wide flat bills used for grooming and grazing.
Canada geese are migratory birds with most living in the southern states during the winter and moving to Northern Canada to breed during the summer. There is also a portion of their population which does not migrate; these geese stay in Coastal B.C., Northern U.S.A., and Northern Mexico year-round. Canada Geese prefer to inhabit large, open, grassy areas, with bodies of water nearby (within 5 acres). These features are often found on golf courses which is why Canada Geese often are found there.
Branta canadensis is a grazing species. They prefer grasses, sedges, grains, berries, seeds and roots. They have also adapted to enjoy farm-grown crops such as corn, winter-wheat, millet, oats, soybeans, green barley, rye, alfalfa, clover, and sorghum. They also eat white and yellow water lilies, pondweed, and milfoil. To aid their digestion they ingest gravel. This gravel remains in the gizzard and helps them to break down their food.
Due to the large size of the Canada Goose it has very few predators. However there are a few animals that will prey on goslings and eggs such as red foxes, common snapping turtles, raccoons, and Virginia opossums. Another common predator is the human with approximately 500,000 hunted and killed each year.
Branta canadensis can live up to 25 years. Within this time each goose will find a mate and stay with it for the rest of their lives (unless separated or one dies). The female goose will choose its mate based on how well the potential mate can protect her. Canada geese start mating at around 3 years old. They reproduce in spring and lay a clutch of 4 to 8 eggs. The female geese build the nest and incubate the eggs while the males defend the nest. The incubation period lasts around 23-30 days. The newborn Canada geese, called goslings, are small, with bright yellow and brown markings.
The Canada goose population is on the rise due to the way we are modifying our wild environments. We have large farms that geese will eat off of, and an expansion of large grassy areas such as golf courses. These changes in the wild landscape make for great breeding grounds and feeding grounds for the geese. In an effort to control Canada Geese populations many programs are set up to frighten the birds away or where volunteers search out nests and shake the geese eggs in order to reduce the numbers of goslings hatching.
Photos by Patrick Dann
Interesting resources for research and photographer credit
Victoria High School
1260 Grant St.
Victoria. BC, Canada